The forecast through April indicates that, while exceptional water deficits in Gujarat and in the south will downgrade, widespread deficits of varying intensity are forecast in western and southern India. Surpluses will re-emerge in Uttar Pradesh in the western Gangetic Plain. Other regions with surpluses include Mizoram (India), Bangladesh, Nepal, rivers in northern Pakistan, and around Kabul, Afghanistan.
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The forecast through March indicates intense water deficits in western and southern India with exceptional deficits in Gujarat and Karnataka. Surpluses are forecast for Uttar Pradesh into western Nepal, and in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and Jammu and Kashmir. Exceptional deficits are forecast in southeastern Pakistan, moderate deficits in the southwest, and surpluses in the northeast. Surpluses are expected in Bangladesh and will be exceptional in Chittagong Division reaching into Mizoram, India.
Through February, exceptional water deficits are forecast in India from Gujarat through Maharashtra and Karnataka, and deficits of varying severity in many regions south of the Gangetic Plain and to the west in Rajasthan. In Pakistan, isolated intense deficits are possible in Karachi. Moderate deficits are forecast in northern Afghanistan, but conditions may be intense northeast of Kabul and along the Harirud River in the west. In Bangladesh, exceptional surpluses are forecast in Chittagong.
The widespread exceptional water deficits that have dominated Afghanistan in recent months will moderate through December though deficits will remain more intense northeast of Kabul. Moderate deficits are forecast for southern Pakistan. In India, deficits will also moderate but will be intense along the Tungabhadra River in the southwest, and in Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Arunachal Pradesh. Areas of surplus include northernmost India, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.
India will transition out of widespread water deficit except in Madhya Pradesh where exceptional deficit is forecast through June. Surplus is forecast in western Andhra Pradesh, India’s southern tip, Odisha, Gujarat, the far north, the Ganges watershed, the Narmada River, central Nepal, and Bangladesh. Intense deficits will continue to emerge in Afghanistan, but diminish in Pakistan except for Karachi where conditions will be exceptional. After June, intense deficits will persist in Afghanistan while anomalies elsewhere in South Asia are expected to be relatively modest.
Intense water deficits are forecast through June 2018 in India’s central state of Madhya Pradesh. In the near-term, through December, severe to exceptional deficits are forecast for central states, and moderate deficits will extend north. Gujarat will transition to conditions of both deficit and surplus. Exceptional surpluses are forecast for Tripura, Mizoram, and Manipur, but surpluses are expected to recede in other northeastern states and in West Bengal. Surpluses of varying severity are forecast for Nepal and western Bhutan. Primarily moderate deficits are forecast for Pakistan and western Afghanistan.
The near-term forecast through October indicates that exceptional deficits will nearly disappear in India but moderate to severe deficits will continue to emerge, covering much of the north/south extent of the country. Surpluses are forecast for Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, and Mizoram. Deficits are forecast for southern Afghanistan, central and southern Pakistan, and eastern Bhutan. Exceptional surpluses will continue to emerge in much of Bangladesh and central Nepal. Deficits in Sri Lanka will ameliorate, leaving moderate deficits in the east. Beyond October primarily moderate deficits will continue to emerge in central India through April 2018.
In the June through August forecast period water conditions are largely moderate across the sub-continent. Moderate to severe water deficits may develop in Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in the north of India and Tamil Nadu in the south. Surplus flows are expected in the Indus River and moderate to severe surpluses may persist over Bangladesh. Conditions moderate in the mid forecast period though surpluses may develop in Jammu & Kashmir September through February 2018 and exceptional deficits may develop in south and central Gujarat in the final forecast period extending into 2018.
Severe to exceptional water deficits are forecast to emerge April through June across central and southern India. Deficits will also emerge near Karachi, Pakistan and will continue to emerge in western Pakistan. Surpluses are forecast in Jammu and Kashmir, eastern Afghanistan, and along the northern Indus River in Pakistan. From July through September deficits in India will decrease in intensity but increase in extent as deficits emerge in the Chambal River watershed. Severe to extreme deficits will persist in Madhya Pradesh. Moderate to severe deficits are also forecast to emerge throughout Bangladesh.
The March through May forecast indicates some relief from water deficit conditions for many parts of India. However, severe to extreme deficits are forecast to persist in Gujarat and moderate deficits are forecast in Uttarakhand, southern India, and Sri Lanka. Surpluses ranging from moderate to exceptional are forecast for the eastern Ganges Basin, the eastern two-thirds of Nepal, and Bangladesh. Surpluses are also expected along the northern tributaries of the Indus River in Pakistan and in eastern Afghanistan.