Moderate deficits will dominate much of Europe from through December, downgrading from prior exceptional deficits in many areas. Severe to extreme deficits are, however, forecast for southern Sweden, central Finland, southern France, Switzerland, and southern Germany. Norway is expected to transition from exceptional deficit to moderate surplus or normal conditions. Moderate surpluses are also forecast in Scotland and extreme surpluses in west-central Sweden. Surpluses of varying intensity are forecast for European Russia and eastern Ukraine.
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Intense water deficits will give way to milder conditions after November along with some pockets of moderate surplus. Until then, severe to exceptional deficits are forecast for Germany, particularly in the south and along the Rhine River, as well as in Switzerland, Finland, southeastern Norway, and southern Ireland. Moderate to severe deficits are expected in many other areas including the Baltics, parts of Eastern Europe, Scotland and England, and much of France. Areas of surplus include Hungary and parts of Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria. Surpluses will be intense in southern Hungary.
The forecast through October indicates that exceptional water deficits will diminish considerably but widespread deficits will continue to affect many parts of Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe and will be especially intense in Finland, Estonia, and southern Germany. Moderate deficits will increase in France. Surpluses are forecast for Hungary, Serbia, Kosovo, Romania, Bulgaria, and Moldova. On the Iberian Peninsula, surpluses will diminish overall, but persist in many parts of Spain and may be exceptional in the south.
The forecast through September indicates that widespread water deficits in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe will downgrade from exceptional levels in most affected regions but remain intense, especially in Central Europe and Finland. Deficits are expected to be extreme on many rivers including the Oder, Elbe, Danube, and Rhine. Surpluses are forecast for the Iberian Peninsula, parts of Eastern Europe and the Balkans, and European Russia.
The forecast through August indicates widespread water deficits of varying severity in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe, with intense deficits sprinkled throughout but especially prevalent in Finland, Estonia, and Latvia. Surpluses will persist on the Iberian Peninsula and may be exceptional between the Tajo and Guadiana Rivers, and from Toledo south to Granada. In European Russia, surpluses ranging from moderate to exceptional are forecast for the Don River Basin and much of the Volga River Basin.
Notable in the near-term forecast is the retreat of water surplus in Central Europe and a transition to moderate deficit. Deficits in Northern Europe are expected to persist and increase, with exceptional deficits in Finland, Estonia, and Latvia. Surpluses will remain intense in Hungary, southern Romania, Moldova, and eastern Bulgaria, and will increase in Ukraine. Surpluses will continue to emerge in Ireland and the UK, and will spread on the Iberian Peninsula. After June, mild deficits are forecast for Central Europe, more intense deficits in Northern Europe, and surplus in the western Iberian Peninsula.
In the near-term through May, water surplus in Central and Eastern Europe and European Russia is expected to shrink and downgrade, though remain widespread. In France and the UK, however, surpluses will increase in extent. Exceptional deficits will continue to emerge in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and a pocket in central Sweden. A band of deficit conditions will persist across southern Italy, but deficits on the Iberian Peninsula will shrink and downgrade – with some surplus conditions emerging. After May, the forecast indicates a transition away from surplus to mild deficit in many areas.
The extent of exceptional water deficits will diminish considerably through February in Southern Europe leaving primarily moderate deficits on the Iberian Peninsula, France, and Italy, with more intense deficits in southeastern France. Exceptional surpluses will continue to emerge in western European Russia and Poland and will emerge in Belarus. Surpluses of varying severity will emerge in greater extent in Central and Eastern Europe. After February the extent and intensity of surpluses in Russia, Central, and Eastern Europe will diminish but surpluses will remain intense in central Poland.
Exceptional water deficits are expected to diminish considerably in the coming months – persisting only in Finland – leaving moderate deficits throughout much of Europe with slightly more intense deficits in parts of the Balkans. Intense surpluses will persist in western Russia, and surpluses are also forecast for northern Sweden, central Germany, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. After November most areas of deficit will return to near-normal conditions. Intense surpluses will persist in western Russia, along with surpluses of lesser severity primarily in Northern Europe.
The August forecast indicates a few areas that will see drier than normal conditions, including northern India from Gujarat through the center of the country; and, along the southern and eastern shores of the Black Sea. But once again it is the temperature forecast that commands attention with vast areas of northern South America and the Middle East forecast to be exceptionally hotter than normal, as well as many other parts of the world with a forecast of warm anomalies of varying severity.