The forecast through August 2019 indicates persistent, widespread water surpluses in Afghanistan with exceptional surpluses around Mazar-e Sharif and from Kandahar to Kabul. Exceptional deficits will emerge in southwestern Pakistan. In India, mild deficits or normal water conditions are forecast for most of the country, with moderate deficits in Kerala, northern Tamil Nadu, southeastern Madhya Pradesh, and Uttaranchal. Moderate surpluses will emerge in central Gujarat.
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The May Outlook includes a forecast of exceptional warm anomalies in a number of places including northern Alaska; the State of São Paulo, Brazil and through the Andes from Colombia through northern Chile; and, around the Gulf of Guinea in Africa. Central Tanzania is expected to be much wetter than normal. Widespread, moderate to severe wet anomalies are forecast in a broad path in the U.S. from Michigan through Louisiana.
The April Outlook indicates a forecast of warmer than normal temperatures in many parts of the world, and regions with especially widespread or intense anomalies include Siberia, Alaska, Thailand, Sri Lanka, around the Gulf of Guinea in Africa, and through much of the Andes in South America. Areas forecast to be wetter than normal include northern Africa and pockets of the Middle East.
The forecast through May indicates that exceptional water deficits will shrink in southern India but are expected along the Tungabhadra River through Karnataka and in northern Kerala. Moderate deficits are forecast from Gujarat to Andhra Pradesh, and more intense pockets in Madhya Pradesh. Areas of surplus include northern India and the Gangetic Plain, Bangladesh, Nepal, northern Pakistan and the Indus River system, and Afghanistan.
The September Outlook indicates that intense heat anomalies which have dominated Central Europe for the past month are expected to moderate overall. Exceptionally warmer than normal temperatures will prevail in Madagascar. Much drier than normal conditions are forecast in India along its southern Arabian Sea coast and also in Ethiopia's central Highlands.
Through October, exceptional water deficits will dominate Afghanistan’s west and northwest. In India, moderate deficits will cover much of the southern two-thirds of the country with more intense deficits in western Telangana, Karnataka, southeastern Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and central Chhattisgarh. Surpluses will downgrade but remain intense in Bangladesh, and will shrink and moderate in Nepal, though remaining exceptional along the Gandaki River.
Through September, exceptional water deficits will increase in Afghanistan, reaching the southern border to dominate roughly two-thirds of the country. Deficits in southern Pakistan are expected to shrink and moderate; moderate surpluses are forecast along the Indus River in the north. In India, primarily moderate deficits will persist in a wide band across the center of the country, but may be more intense in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Odisha. Deficits will increase and intensify in southern India. Surpluses in Bangladesh will shrink and downgrade.
Exceptional water deficits are forecast to persist in Afghanistan, retreating slightly in the north but increasing in the south. Pakistan should get a reprieve as intense deficits diminish considerably, leaving moderate to severe conditions in western Baluchistan. India will transition out of widespread deficit to milder conditions, with moderate deficits in the south and more severe deficits in the Far Northeast, particularly Assam. Surpluses will downgrade to moderate in West Bengal, and will shrink and downgrade in Bangladesh while remaining fairly intense, especially in Dhaka Division.
Exceptional water deficits will remain widespread in Afghanistan, while decreasing slightly. Deficits in Pakistan will generally moderate. India will transition from widespread water deficits to milder conditions. However, exceptional deficits are forecast surrounding Chandigarh, moderate deficits in Rajasthan, and intense deficits in the Far Northeast. Surpluses are expected in Jammu and Kashmir, northern Odisha, West Bengal, and along the Tapi River. Intense surpluses are forecast for the Gandaki River in Nepal. Moderate to extreme surpluses are forecast for northern Bangladesh.
India will transition out of widespread water deficit except in Madhya Pradesh where exceptional deficit is forecast through June. Surplus is forecast in western Andhra Pradesh, India’s southern tip, Odisha, Gujarat, the far north, the Ganges watershed, the Narmada River, central Nepal, and Bangladesh. Intense deficits will continue to emerge in Afghanistan, but diminish in Pakistan except for Karachi where conditions will be exceptional. After June, intense deficits will persist in Afghanistan while anomalies elsewhere in South Asia are expected to be relatively modest.