The forecast through September indicates that the extent of intense water deficits will diminish across the northern nations but will persist in French Guiana and Suriname. In Brazil, intense deficits will persist in Amapá, the southern Amazon Basin, Mato Grosso, Matto Grosso do Sul, western São Paulo State, eastern Minas Gerais, and Espírito Santo. Areas of surplus include central Paraguay and northern Argentina.
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Sao Francisco River
The forecast through June indicates that water deficits in Brazil will shrink, with nearly normal conditions in Pará and Amazonas, but intense deficits are forecast for Mato Grosso, Tocantins, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, western São Paulo, and along many rivers. Surpluses will increase in northeastern states. Exceptional deficits will trace a path along the Pacific Coast from Lima, Peru reaching almost to Santiago, Chile. Surpluses will increase and intensify in Paraguay.
The forecast through May indicates that water deficits in Brazil will shrink and downgrade significantly, though intense deficits are forecast for eastern Minas Gerais, Espíritu Santo, and São Paulo. Surpluses will emerge in northeastern states and will moderate but increase in the south. Exceptional deficits are forecast for Suriname and French Guiana, and deficits of varying intensity for Brazil’s northern neighbors, and Peru, Chile, eastern Bolivia, and Argentina. Surpluses will shrink in northern Bolivia, downgrade in central Paraguay, and moderate in northeastern Argentina and Uruguay.
The forecast through March indicates that water deficits in the Amazon Basin will shrink, but exceptional deficits will persist in southern Amazonas and the center of the country, and intense deficits will emerge Central-West and Southeast states and along the São Francisco River. Other areas of deficit include Peru and Chile. Surpluses will emerge in northeastern Argentina, Uruguay, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with exceptional surpluses in eastern Uruguay.
Regions forecast to have significant water deficits for the 12-month period from October 2018 through September 2019 include: Quebec (Canada), Finland, Venezuela, Somalia, South Africa, India, Thailand, Cambodia, and Australia. Areas with a forecast of significant water surplus include: Texas (US), Paraguay, Uruguay, Tanzania, and China. This Watch List is based on ISciences Water Security Indicator Model (WSIM) run on 1 February 2019.
Recently observed water conditions across the whole of South America are expected to persist through the near-term forecast period with widespread exceptional water deficits spanning the whole of northern Brazil and the Amazon basin. Exceptional surpluses in central Argentina and southern Paraguay persist in the near-term before moderating in the later forecast periods. In the September through November period, severe to exceptional deficits are expected to persist in northern Chile and across the northern states of Brazil including Roraima, Pará, and Amapá.
The forecast through July shows water conditions similar to the prior three months: large, widespread pockets of exceptional deficits in Brazil, and deficits along many Brazilian rivers. Deficits in southern Venezuela are forecast to increase in severity while those in the north recede. Severe to exceptional deficits are expected to persist in northern Chile. Surpluses are forecast to emerge in Bolivia east of Lake Titicaca; surpluses in eastern Paraguay will increase; and surpluses will persist in Buenos Aires, La Pampa, and Neuquén Provinces in Argentina.
Though the extent of water deficits in South America is expected to shrink somewhat April through June, deficits remain in the forecast for many areas including central and eastern states of Brazil, Bolivia’s northern border, coastal Peru from Lima south, northern Chile, and southernmost Patagonia. Surpluses are forecast in western Buenos Aires Province, Argentina into La Pampa Province, and Neuquén Province. From July through September deficits are forecast for much of the northern half of South America as deficits persist in Brazil and emerge from Colombia through French Guiana.
Though the extent of water deficits in South America is expected to shrink March through May, deficits are forecast in central and eastern states of Brazil, western French Guiana into eastern Suriname, Bolivia, Chile, and coastal Peru. Surpluses are forecast in Paraguay, in a line down western Argentina, in central Buenos Aires Province (Argentina), in Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná (Brazil), northern Peru, northern Guyana, Suriname, and parts of Ecuador. From June through August deficits are forecast to persist across Brazil’s mid-section and emerge in Piauí and across northern Brazil. Deficits are also forecast for Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, coastal Peru, and northern Chile. Surpluses will persist in aforementioned areas of Paraguay and Argentina.
Though the extent of water deficits in South America is expected to shrink overall February through April, severe to exceptional deficits are forecast in eastern Brazil as well as pockets in some western states. Deficits in Bolivia are forecast to shrink in extent but large pockets will persist, and the extent of deficits in Chile will shrink slightly. Surpluses will continue to emerge in central and northeastern Argentina; Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; northern Peru; and eastern Colombia. From May through June deficits will persist in eastern Brazil but much of the Amazon Basin will transition to near-normal. Deficits along Peru’s coast will increase in intensity, becoming exceptional.