Significant water deficits will continue to emerge across the north, though exceptional deficits will shrink. Deficits will diminish in central and southern Africa but remain intense in Gabon, southeastern DRC, Zambia, and west-central Madagascar. Southern Africa will downgrade to mild deficit. Surpluses will persist in southernmost Sudan, downgrade along the White Nile, increase in Kenya, and emerge in eastern Uganda, Ethiopia, and along the Jubba and Shabelle Rivers through southern Somalia. Exceptional surplus will persist in Tanzania.
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The forecast through May shows widespread, intense water deficits emerging across northern Africa. Liberia and the Horn of Africa will transition from deficit to near-normal conditions. In Gabon, deficits will downgrade but remain intense, while deficits in central and southern Africa downgrade to moderate. Deficits are also forecast for: Guinea Bissau, western Burkina Faso, northern Ghana, northern Ethiopia, eastern Central African Republic, and western and southern Madagascar. Surplus is forecast for Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, eastern South Sudan, southeastern Sudan, and southern Ethiopia.
The extent of exceptional water deficits is expected to diminish considerably after September, though deficits of varying severity will remain in the forecast and will likely be more severe in the northern half of the continent. In the near-term, July through September, severe to exceptional deficits are forecast in the desert regions of the northern nations, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, northern Niger, and northern Sudan; and also in Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. Exceptional deficits will retreat in southern Namibia during this period but will emerge in the northeastern portion of the country, eastward into neighboring Botswana and across the border into South Africa. Exceptional surpluses are forecast to continue in eastern Tanzania though September but will retreat to the coast by December.
Most noteworthy in the November 2016 Outlook is the forecast of a vast expanse of exceptionally warmer temperatures for the US Midwest and northward through Canada. Significant warm anomalies are also expected in coastal West Africa, the Gulf of Guinea, Madagascar, India's southern tip, and Southeast Asia. Exceptional dry anomalies are forecast along South America's northern Pacific coast and in southern Ethiopia. Areas forecast to experience wet anomalies include northern Brazil and northern Australia.
Africa: Forecast includes exceptional water surpluses in East Africa, deficits in coastal West Africa, southern Africa
The dominant water security issues of interest in Africa continue to be drought in Coastal West Africa and Southern Africa, and water surpluses in East Africa. Coastal West Africa may continue to experience deficits through May 2016, which may reach inland areas. Drought conditions in Southern Africa are forecast to moderate through November, though severe to exceptional deficits are possible December through May. Exceptional surpluses are expected in East Africa through May.
Exceptional deficits are forecast to persist and intensify in a swath of countries in coastal West Africa from southern Liberia to Angola, and may continue to emerge in southern Africa. Exceptional surpluses are expected in Tanzania and surrounding areas.
Water deficits may persist in Coastal West Africa through March 2016 with exceptional water deficits forecast in October.
40-year and greater water deficits are forecast for Coastal West Africa starting in July 2015 and continuing through October 2015, with some areas remaining in exceptional deficit status through the end of the year. These deficits will affect the coastal regions of Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon. Although monthly deficits decline after October 2015, no recovery is expected, on an annual basis, until sometime after January 2016.
WSIM forecasts a widespread and exceptional drought for coastal West Africa (Gabon through Sierra Leone) peaking from July through Dec 2015. The affected region includes heavily populated areas of Nigeria and the countries facing challenges in the aftermath of the Ebola outbreak.